The European Court of Human Rights considers parental alienating behavior to be a form of emotional child abuse and requests that when there are indications of such that quick and carefully chosen measures are applied. "In addition, we must take parents’ fears and concerns seriously, even if they talk about the non-recognized parental alienation syndrome. The burden of proof for sufficient diligence in a particular case lies with the authorities. It is important to take children’s wishes seriously; however, we must verify that their expressed wish is compatible with their best interests".
Sünderhauf-Kravets, H., & Widrig, M. (2021). Compensation for “parental alienation”: Analysis of ECtHR Judgement 23641/17. In The Routledge International Handbook of Shared Parenting and Best Interest of the Child (1st ed.). Routledge.
The overall pattern of evidence indicates that legal presumptions of equal parenting time would help protect children’s emotional security with each of their divorced parents, and consequently would have a positive effect on public health in the form of reduced long-term stress-related mental and physical health problems among children of divorce.
Fabricius, W. V. (2020). Equal parenting time: The case for a legal presumption. In J. G. Dwyer (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Children and the Law (pp. 453–475). Oxford:Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.17738.41924
fathers have a crucial role in child well-being
Lindstedt, J., Korja, R., Vilja, S., & Ahlqvist-Björkroth, S. (2020). Fathers’ prenatal attachment representations and the quality of father–child interaction in infancy and toddlerhood. Journal of Family Psychology, 35(4), 478–488. https://doi.org/10.1037/fam0000813